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Guide for Thesis Writing: APA7 Style Guide: Citing and references (APA7)

Guide about how to write a thesis in KAMK.

About APA7

Here at KAMK we use American Psychology Association's citing style APA7. 

References provide the information necessary for readers to identify and retrieve each work cited in text. Referencing the sources you have used in your text is an important step in a writing process. Check each reference carefully against the original publication to ensure information is accurate and complete. Accurately prepared references help establish your credibility as a careful researcher and writer Also by referencing the sources you used indicates that your arguments are clearly supported by evidence.

References are organized by author's last name in alphabetic order.

We have gathered the most common examples how to cite your work to this LibGuide but more examples and information about APA7 you can find on

  In-text citation Reference list

Books and ebooks

(Surname, year, page) OR Surname (year, page) Surname, I. (Year). Title. Publisher.

One author

(Nieto-Rodriguez, 2021, p. 72) OR Nieto-Rodriguez (2021, p. 72)  Nieto-Rodriguez, A. (2021). Harvard Business Review Project Management Handbook: How to Launch, Lead, and Sponsor Successful Projects. Harvard Business Review Press.

Two authors

(Taylor & Francis, 2013, p. 25) OR Taylor and Francis (2013, p. 25) Taylor, B. & Francis, K. (2013). Qualitative Research in the Health Sciences: Methodologies, Methods and Processes. Taylor & Francis.

Multiple authors

(Duhaime et al., 2011, p. 89)

Duhaime, I., Hitt, M, & Lyles, M. (eds.) (2021). Strategic management : State of the field and its future. Oxford University Press.


*If there are 21 or more authors, include the names of the first 19 authors in your reference list. Then add "(...)" and the name of the last author. There should not be more than 20 names.

For example: 

Hogg, B., Moreno-Alcázar, A., Tóth, M. D., Serbanescu, I., Aust, B., Leduc, C., Paterson, C., Tsantilla, F., Abdulla, K., Cerga-Pashoja, A., Cresswell-Smith, J., Fanaj, N., Meksi, A., Ni Dhalaigh, D., Reich, H., Ross, V., Sanches, S., Thomson, K., van Audenhove, C., (…) Orchard, W. (2022). Supporting employees with mental illness and reducing mental illness-related stigma in the workplace: an expert survey. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience.

Chapter in edited book

(Sharpley, 2009, p. 8) Sharpley, R. (2009). Shedding Light on Dark Tourism: An Introduction. In R. Sharpley & P.R. Stone (Eds.), The Darker Side of Travel: The Theory and Practice of Dark Tourism. (pp. 3–22). Channel View Publications.
Organization/Corporate author

(World Tourism Organization [UNWTO], 2021) later (UNWTO, 2021)

World Tourism Organization [UNWTO]. (2021). The Wine Routes of the World. UNWTO.

*Use the full name of the organization the first time you cite them and include the abbreviation before the year in parentheses. Later when you cite the same source you can use the abbreviation.

Articles and journals

(Surname, year) OR Surname (year)

Surname, I. (Year). Title of the article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page–page. DOI OR Retrieved Month day, year, from https://...

With DOI

(Meng-Lewis et al., 2022, p. 107) Meng-Lewis, Y., Wong, D., Zhao, Y., & Lewis, G. (2022). Understanding complexity and dynamics in the career development of eSports athletes. Sport Management Review25(1), 106–133.

Without DOI

(Kuusimäki & García-Rosell, 2018) Kuusimäki, E., & García-Rosell, J.-C. (2018). Listening to the local voices of a destination - “Live like a local” experiences in Helsinki. Matkailututkimus14(2), 59–61. Retrieved Aug 1, 2022, from  
Periodicals (Baranyi, 2017) OR Baranyi (2017) Baranyj, S. (2017, Jun 27). Is the staggeringly profitable business of scientific publishing bad for science? The Guardian. Retrieved Aug 3, 2022, from
Theses and Dissertations

(Surname, year) OR Surname (year)

Surname, I. (Year). Title. Thesis type, Institution of study. Permanent location.

(Liljemark, 2022) OR Surname (year)

Liljemark, E. (2022). Meaningfulness of Work – a Buffer and a Booster? Master's thesis, Kajaani University of Applied Sciences.
Study materials (Surname, year) OR Surname (year) Surname, I. (Year, month date). Title of material [format]. Institution. Platform or site.
  (Toikkanen & Oksanen, 2020) OR  Toikkanen and Oksanen (2020) Toikkanen, T. & Oksanen, V. (2020, Jan 1). Copyrights in education [PDF]. Library of Open Educational Resources.
Webpages (Surname, year)

Surname, I. (Year, month date). Title. Site name. Retrieved month day, year, from https://....

*If there is no date found, use the abbrevation n.d. 

Individual author (Laferte, 2022) OR Laferte (2022) Laferte, S. (2022, Jun 7). Style Guide: How To Write One for Your Brand. Content Marketing Institute. Retrieved Aug 3, 2022, from 

No individual author

(Business Finland, 2022) OR Business Finland (2022)

Business Finland. (2022, Jun 21). Finding Finland: Three Biggest Foreign Investments in the Country's History. Retrieved Aug 3, 2022, from

*If the author is the same as the site, you don't have to include the site name again.

Web document (e.g. pdf) (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2018) OR U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [HSS] (2022) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [HSS]. 2018. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved Aug 3, 2022, from
Blogs (Brett & Mitchell, 2022) OR Brett and Mitchell (2022) Brett, J.M. & Mitchell, T. (2022, May 11). How to Build Strong Business Relationships –Remotely. [Blog post]. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 2022, Aug 2, from

Personal communication (e.g. email, phone call, letter)

(Alasalmi, 1.8.2018)

Alasalmi, K. (2018). Nurse practitioner. [Email]. 1.8.2018.


(Jäntti, 2022) OR Jäntti (2022) Jäntti, M. (2022). Digital Afternoon: Digital solutions for forestry. [Webinar]. KAMK. Retrieved 2022, Aug 3, from 
Videos (ESL Gaming, 2022) OR ESL Gaming (2022) ESL Gaming. (2022). SC2 - Serral vs Reynor - IEM Katowice 2022 - Final. [Video]. ESL Archives. Retrieved 2022, Aug 2, from
Audiobooks (Wong, 2020) OR Wong (2020)

Wong, A. (2020). Disability Visibility: First-person Stories from the Twenty-First Century. [Audio]. Random House. [Libby].

*Add the audiobook provider in square brackets after the publisher.

*Because there is no page numbers on audiobooks they are not used.

Laws (Statute/agreement/article, specifications if needed) Statute/agreement and its title if given. https://...

(Act on the Openness of Government Activities 621/1999, Section 2)


(Kirjanpitolaki [KPL] 1336/1997, Section 3

Act on the Openness of Government Activities 621/1999. Retrieved October 18, 2020, from /laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990621                                                              


Kirjanpitolaki 30.12.1997/1336. Retrieved Aug 4, 2022, from


*You can also use the official abbreviation.

When citing an act, use its official abbreviation (you have to specify the act when it appears for the first time in your text), chapter, section and subsection.

You can check the correct spelling of abbreviations of acts and decrees in the Finlex and Edilex databases, or in the printed books Suomen Laki or Suomen säädöskokoelma. For example on

Standards (Standard number, year, page) Standard number. (year). Title. Publisher. https://...

ISO Standard

(ISO 450001:2018, 2018) ISO 45001. (2018). Occupational health and safety management systems: Requirement with guidance for use. International Organization for Standardization.
Patents (Van Doren, 2020)

Van Doren, D. (2020). Modular barrier panel and construction system (U.S. Patent US10683656).

*Patent number in brackets.


Quick Guide

Paraphrasing and citing


Paraphrasing means referencing a source text with your own words. It is an important skill to learn and utilize. When paraphrasing you summarize the main ideas of your source text. You should always mark clearly what has been cited by using in-text citations. 

In-text citation types:

There are two types of in-text citations; parenthetical citations and narrative citations. Parenthetical citations are in brackets at the end of the paraphrased text and narrative citations are part of the text.

Parenthetical citation: (Nieto-Rodriguez, 2021, p. 75)

Narrative citation: Nieto-Rodriguez (2021, p. 75) states that the purposes of the project...

Page numbers:

Include page numbers whenever you are citing information from a particular page or section of a source. 

Not all textual works provide page numbers. In these cases use chapter number or heading.

For example:

Page: (Stoddard et al., 2020, p. 47)

Page range: (World Health Organization [WHO], 2019, pp. 202–205)

Chapter: (Meranda, 2018, Chapter 14)

Separate numbers in the page range using an en dash (–).

Secondary sources:

You should always aim to use the primary source because a secondary source may have been cited incorrectly or out of context. If you need to cite the secondary source, citation is as follows.

For example:

​Allender et al. (2006) as cited in Heikkinen (2010, p. 42).

In the bibliography, only cite the source you used.

Same author, multiple references: 

Sometimes you need to cite different works from the same author. In the bibliography you list the sources by year from oldest to newest. If the sources have been published the same year, add a letter after the year. 

For example:

(Kortelainen, 2018a, p. 111)

(Kortelainen, 2018b, p. 201)

Multiple sources in the same citation:

If you are citing multiple sources in a same citation you separate them with a semicolon (;)

(Taylor & Francis, 2013, 37; Saldana et al, 2011, pp. 89–92.

   Short quotations 

When you are quoting the exact words of someone else, use quotation marks.

When quoting directly, always provide the author, year and page number of the quotation in either the parenthetical or narrative format.  

For example:

It is important to clearly state your research questions in your work. According to Johnson (2013) the research questions, if articulated well, can "direct the design, sample, data-collection tools, and also the analysis procedures to be used" (p. 62).

   Long quotations (40 words or multiple rows)

When you wish to quote a longer text use blockquote. They do not need the quotation marks, but have to indent the text and insert the in-text citations normally.

For example:

Nieto-Rodriguez (2021) explains that:

People have enormous strengths, and the best leaders know that it is possible to tap into these strengths through their hearts. When a project they work on connects to their inner purpose and passions, they can achieve extraordinary things. Remember that people don't have to have to be great at something to be passionate. ( p. 75)

Remember to use quotations sparingly and thoughtfully. It is recommended to paraphrase your sources instead of using direct quotes.

Punctuation in citations


Mendeley is an online research management, writing and collaboration tool. It is designed to help students and researchers easily gather, manage, store and share all types of information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies. In order to use Mendeley you have to create an free account on

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